We hope that you will participate and volunteer in this effort with long term
involvement, and will keep your interest in Sanskrit alive, as a tool, to
enhance your literary, philosophical, and spiritual undertakings. It is not enough just to wish to promote such activities, mention of past literary geniuses, sages, or talk about
India's glorious past, but must be followed by involvement at many levels locally and make life more interesting.
Welcome! Thank you for visiting the FAQ section of the Sanskrit Documents site.
We have tried to include answers to various questions asked in the email correspondence and the
. These are compiled to provide quick help for visitors like you in order to reduce correspondence on the email@example.com email service. There are many links provided here and in http://sanskritlinks.blogspot.com which will enhance your navigation in Sanskrit related activities and in lifetime learning.
We hope that you will participate and volunteer in this effort with long term involvement, and will keep your interest in Sanskrit alive, as a tool, to enhance your literary, philosophical, and spiritual undertakings. It is not enough just to wish to promote such activities, mention of past literary geniuses, sages, or talk about India's glorious past, but must be followed by involvement at many levels locally and make life more interesting.
Topics for Frequently Asked Questions
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We have attempted to compile documents in Sanskrit at http://sanskritdocuments.org/ and its mirror sites, along with links to various organizations affiliated with the Indian "thought." Due to different individual interests, it is difficult to point out where one should start. There are links to dictionaries, tutorials, processing tools, translations, and audio files which will aid in the learning process.
From the links in audio files you may want to choose one document to study as a beginning project rather than browsing through all documents at this site. Browsing the documents at this site gives a broad overview, but does not lead to a greater understanding of Indian languages. Keep working on it!
Mr. Bhagwan Singh expressed his opinion on influencing for the love of the language and literature : "People do not learn languages out of reverence. There are many attendant factors:
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There are quite a few places one can get fonts. Some of them are:
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Sanskrit is certainly used mainly in India. It is considered the originator (mother) of most of the languages in India. As a high level Indo-European language, one time, it had widespread influence on the people in Asia and Northern regions (including part of Russia.) Unfortunately, over long time period, due to conquests and expansionist attitudes of certain beliefs and societies, it stayed concentrated mainly in India/Nepal region. For example, there is an original word "sthaana" in Sanskrit meaning place, which is now changed to stan (Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkministan, Afganistan, et cetera) indicating that the language was circulated in these regions. (India is called Hindusthan, as beliefs in the region are termed as Hindu, of people living beyond Sindhu river, which is now called Indus.) There are quite a few examples found by modern linguists confirming such understanding.
Sanskrit is not used in daily conversation (except in certain families) although sizable number of words in vernacular languages have originated from Sanskrit. Sanskrit has a very finely structured set of vowels and consonants based on pronunciation (see links below for alphabets). Many ancient texts, concerned with our personal life, surpassing the concept of organized religion, are written in Sanskrit and are still applicable to our lives.
Please see a set of articles on History of Sanskrit language. A brief presentation is available at wikipedia, The origin and evolution of Sanskrit on hinduwebsite.com, a collection of quotes and historical perspective at A Tribute to Hinduism site, Why study Sanskrit? on acharya site and What is Sanskrit? on Columbia University web page of Professor Gary A. Tubb.
An article on Sanskrit by NASA scientist Rick Briggs in Artificial Intelligence magazine (Spring 1985) may interest you. The article is mirrored at http://www.gosai.com/science/ under Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence. Additional research is underway at Carnegie Mellon University, for example, on the topic of Deciphering the Vedas by Prabhu Ram Raghunathan.
You may want to search the archives of discussion groups of Indology: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgadkw/indology.html and the Sanskrit digest (subscription information is in http://sanskritdocuments.org/projects_digest.html. Additional information is available in the usergroups file. Yahoo groups that promote Sanskrit learning is given in sanskritlinks.blogspot.com, see the entry for Sunday, July 16, 2006 entry.
Also see the following URLs.
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Here is a simple beginning: See the alphabet, and hear the associated sounds at
Penn language center of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, has alphabets in real video format.
There are quite a few sites providing alphabets and sounds of Devanagari characters using Flash. Please see them at
http://members.tripod.com/sarasvati/devanagari/alphabets.html by Hemanth Kumar,
and well studied http://acharya.iitm.ac.in site.
Some of these even show how the letters are written with a pen and a slate for you to practice.
Vyas Houston, director of the American Sanskrit Institute has published books and manuals depicting Sanskrit sound generation and physical locations of different sounds. For example, please see for alphabets and their position in the mouth. There are others intresting articles that will help grasp the importance of Studying Sanskrit, e.g. Language of Enlightenment, Sanskrit and teh Technological Age.
Syracuse University's Hindi division has developed scripts to show strokes on how Devanagari alphabets are written along with their audio sounds.
Some of the translated documents, tutorials, correspondence courses, and books linked from the FAQ will help you learn Sanskrit; however, there is no substitute to learning from knowledgeable individuals.
Although it is a little diversion to the answer, one should browse around Languages and Scripts of India site developed by Yashwant Malaiya. Another site built by Professor Kalyana Krishnan at IIT, Madras with same title Languages and Scripts of India as a part of the multilingual software. This is a unique software which delas with major languages of India. A rare collection of alphabets for Devanagari, languages from India, Tibetan, Brahmi, Persian, and other South east languages is built by Eden Golshani. A modi script site is developed by Rajiv Mhasawade.
Prof. Himanshu Pota has complied various links for learning Hindi which may be useful for learning Sanskrit as well. See http://www.ee.adfa.edu.au/staff/hrp/personal/Hindi/index.html . He also writes a blog for Learning Sanskrit at http://www.ee.adfa.edu.au/staff/hrp/personal/sanskrit/index.html.
Links to Sanskrit ebooks are compiled at sanskritebooks.org. Please make use of these books.
A few have asked us to show the "original" script instead of commonly used Devanagari. As we know, Devanagari is supposed to have originated from Brahmi script. Please see http://www.ancientscripts.com/sitemap.html and compare Brahmi and Devanagari. Also see the reference in http://www.vidyavrikshah.org/sanskrit.html
If you are involved in teaching, read an article Good teaching qualities: inducing interest and positive expectations by Premchand Palety with an example of a Sanskrit teacher.
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Yes, all are available in print. Please refer to publications by Motilal Banarasidas, Ramakrishna Mission, Chinmaya Mission, Gita Press, and other publishers in India. Please see links for books at http://sanskritdocuments.org/. A list of bookstores is available here.
Links to Sanskrit and Hindu scriptural ebooks are compiled at sanskritebooks.org. Please make use of these books.
See a Repository of paintings by HareKrishan
Audio cassettes of chanting of all the Vedas are available from http://www.ahista.com/dvt/vedchant.html.
The cassettes come with printed books with English translations. See all other Veda related links in
Please refer to Ramayana, Mahabharat,
Rigveda files for texts and some translations.
The English meaning of Valmiki Ramayana in audio
cassettes form is available at http://www.RamayanAudio.com/
There are some audio clips and excellent presentation of Sanskrit documents
on Dale Steinhauser's Sanskrit document's site.
Q: I need to translate some Sanskrit verses into English. Is there any software available which will translate them for me?
Can you translate English text into Sanskrit?
Audio cassettes of chanting of all the Vedas are available from http://www.ahista.com/dvt/vedchant.html. The cassettes come with printed books with English translations. See all other Veda related links in doc_veda.
Please refer to Ramayana, Mahabharat, Rigveda files for texts and some translations. The English meaning of Valmiki Ramayana in audio cassettes form is available at http://www.RamayanAudio.com/
There are some audio clips and excellent presentation of Sanskrit documents on Dale Steinhauser's Sanskrit document's site.
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There is some attempt of a software for direct translation of Hindi/Sanskrit at pocket translator. There is professional help available at web-translator 1 or 2, and freelang.net. There is no easy software as avilable for Oriental and European languages.
Referring to the online Sanskrit dictionaries or installing Louis Bontes' dictionary utility for Monier William's digitized dictionary at Cologne available at http://members.ams.chello.nl/l.bontes/ will help. Klaus Glashoff's http://spokensanskrit.de is a new online hypertext dictionary.
A scholarly translational service is available as a part of http://www.samskrita-bharati.org/translation.html.
It is also a good idea to subscribe to the following mailing lists with genuine interest. Subscribing just to get translations may not invoke a reply from those who visit frequently.sanskrit-digest, indology (see groups.yahoo.com for rejuvenated group), advaita-L, ambaa-L, dvaita, alt.hindu (newsgroup not active any more), where many scholars and devotees interact.
Visit Kiran Paranjape's http://freetranslationblog.blogspot.com/ for free translation of words and sentences.
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You are welcome to enter any text which has not been already encoded. we normally maintain a wishlist or a list of pending items to guide volunteers decide the text. (We like to avoid duplication of efforts so please check with us when you decide about a text. For example, Lalita Sahasranama is already encoded so there is no need to re-encode it unless one is doing it to develop devotion.)
If you have a PC, please download and install Itranslator99/2003 available at http://www.omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html. There is an Itrans encoding scheme table in the help menu. Please print it and use it to get familiar with the software. If the auto-convert option is on, you will be able to see the Devanagari display immediately as you type. Alternately, the scheme is given in a separate file.
For Mac and Unix/Linux users, there is web-interface available as mentioned elsewhere in this document.
Refer to the web-interface common errors and tips, which points to additional links.
It is best to develop a methodology for typing up the text so that it is not physically and mentally taxing. We also emphasize encoding the text for your own studies and enjoyment, providing it to other users as a side activity, after you become more comfortable with the encoding scheme.
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There is a list of Devanagari fonts available for all the platforms from Yashwant Malaiya's site. There are also various web interfaces mentioned in this document that are platform-independent.
Also see Sparshabhumi site for Devanagari & other language scripts from India, compiled by Christian Coseru.
Since the introduction of Mac System 8.5, there has been built-in support for Mac's worldscript and languages such as Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati, Nepali, Punjabi, Marathi, etc. One has to install the appropriate support from the installation CD. It continues through to OS X as well. It is supposed to be very easy to use. The keyboard can be configured for Inscript or QWERTY for native English speakers. Since it works at the system level all programs that are worldscript aware support it. It can be used in Microsoft Word. Contact Rothrock for additional information.
The Macintosh became a Unix-based system as of version 10.1 of Mac OS X. (Apple claims to be the world's largest manufacturer of Unix-based computers, a distinction previously enjoyed by Sun Microsystems, HP, DEC, etc.) This means that a large amount of open-source Unix software that runs on Linux, FreeBSD, etc., is also available for Mac OS X. The best-known open-source distro is Fink (http://fink.sourceforge.net), and can be used to install teTeX (the most common distribution of LaTeX and associated tools). It needs XCode Tools 1.1/1.5 (which comes with Mac OS X 10.3 "Panther") to be installed. (Mac OS X 10.2 "Jaguar" users need to install the December 2002 version of the Apple Developer Tools.)
Installing ITRANS can be done after installing teTeX (through Fink or otherwise) is completed. It should not be too difficult for someone familiar with Unix to accomplish this, but as the Itrans deeveloper Avinash Chopde cautions, it can be a daunting task for one new to it. Please visit http://www.dvaita.info/shrao/itrans/ for additional information.
Richmond Mathewson (richmondmathewson at gmail.com) has developed Macintosh and Windows based Sanskrit Typewriter, which is a clickable keyboard based (letter by letter) entry system for Devanagari and Roman output. A short program needs to be downloaded and installed.
With the availability of Unicode fonts, one can also generate Devanagari textonline, suitable for all computer platforms, using Itrans On-line Web Interface and HiTrans with Itrans transliteration scheme.
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"raso vai saH, rasaM hy evAyaM labdhvAnandI bhavati" translates as "He is the essence, by obtaining That all this also will become happy." taittiriiya upanishad II : 7 : i is the source.
Perhaps, the pronouns need to be explained. The "saH" refers to the "brahma". He (or it) is indeed (vai) the essence. Only (eva) having obtained (labdhvaa) it (rasaM) he (ayaM - probably a jiiva in this context) becomes (bhavati) happy (aanandii).
For meanings of Namaste, OM, Gayatri mantra please see general documents list. You can find suitable mantra for yourself based on the birth particulars.
For Surya Namaskar, Sun salutations, suryanamaskar, please refer to the sites 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. as a few examples.
Kiran Paranjape has newly started a service to translate names/texts at http://freetranslationblog.blogspot.com/.
Here are simple meanings of common English words.
Air vaayuH (more as a wind as this word indicates motion) Awakening jaagaraNa, prabodhana(spiritual level) Balance sa.ntulana Calm shaanta, prashaanta Cleansing shodhana, paavanam (purification), marjanam Death mR^ityu Elements bhUtAni, dhaatavaH Enthusiasm utsaaha Fate bhAgya, daivagati, karma Freedom svaatantrya, svatantrataa Global saarva-bhauma Happiness aana.nda Harmony sa.nj~naati, sa.nj~naana Health aarogya Heart hR^idaya Innovation nuutana Life jiivanaM, jIvitaM, praaNadhaaraNaM Love prema, anuraaga Ocean saagaraH, samudraH Pain duHkha Peace shaamya, shaanti Power shakti Pure shuddha Quality uttamatvam Solutions kShipti Respect aadara Sea saagaraH, samudraH Serenity prasannataa Smart medhaa, paTu Spirit aatmaa Star nakShatraM, taara Strength bala Tranquility shaantataa Trust vishvaasa Truth satya Vitality viiryaThere are of course different shades to each word so we request you to see Sanskrit dictionaries and links available on this site.
Louis Bontes' dictionary utility for Monier William's digitized dictionary at Cologne is available at http://members.ams.chello.nl/l.bontes/.
Instead of directly translating the phrase "God Bless You"
word by word, this is how it is conveyed.
shubhaM bhuuyaat.h | ma~NgalaM bhuuyaat.h | svasti |
bhuuyaat is let there be, shubhaM or ma.ngalaM is for auspiciousness or wellbeing. Basically the message projected is that "let good things come to you." About the good things, here is a prayer from Yajurveda
From Krishna Yajurveda : Taittiriya Aranyaka IV-42:5:93
"Live Strong" phrase indicating mental strength can be paraphrased as "dhairyeNa jijiiviShet.h |" To translate, "have a desire to live with courage." jijIviSha is transalted (MW) as desire to live. dhairya as firmness, constancy, calmness, patience, gravity , fortitude, courage.
"Mother, you are forever missed and never to be forgotten!"
utkaNThitaH anantakaalam he maataH
na kadaapi vismaraNiiyaa tvam cha || for "you are forever missed (actually, I miss you forever), Mother, and never to be forgotten!" As an alternative:
virahavyaakulo maatar vismR^itirna kadaapi te ||
virahavyaakulaa maatar vismR^itirna kadaapi te ||
The first is for a man, second for a woman.
Here are translations of two blessings:
paripuurNatayaa jiivet.h . ##live life to the full##
hR^idyam anugachchhet.h .
hR^idaya~Ngama anugachchhet.h . ##follow your heart##
Here is another phrase:
naahaM nidhanabhayavyaakulaH |
naahaM vyathaaghaatavichchhedyaH |
jiivitametanmama prekShaNiiyam ||
"Death cannot shake me, pain will not break me,
this life is mine to behold."
With sandhi-vigraha it is
na aham nidhana\-bhaya\-vyaakulaH |
na aham vyathaa\-aaghaata\-vichchhedyaH |
jiivitam etad mama prekShaNiiyam ||
Another translation for the same phrase is
mR^ityurna shaknoti kShobhayituM maaM
na cha vyathaa maaM vibhagnaM karoti .
samiikShituM jiivamidaM cha lokaM
arhamyahaM na tu vR^ithaa matirme ..
Use webinterface to see the Sanskrit portion (of phrases above or below) in Devanagari script. Itranslator99 or newer Itranslator2003 will be even better. Also consult Sanskrit dictionary at Cologne linked from http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/ for word meaning details.
Look at another one:
mama dehaH khalu ma.ndiraM | mama ##= mine;## dehaH ##= body## khalu ##= truly, certainly, surely## ma.ndiraM ##= temple## deho me ma.ndiraM saaxaat.h hR^inme devashcha tatsthitaH | ##Body is verily a temple. In its heart the God resides.## saaxaat.h ##= personified, verily;## hR^idaya ##= heart hR^inme # = in the heart;## devaH ##= God## cha ##= also (for emphasis);## tat.h ##= that ## sthitaH ## = resides##
na ki~nchidapi ashakyam.h | ##= nothing is impossible##
ashakyam tan na ki~nchit.h | ##= impossible is nothing.##
Another one from the Beatles' song
"Within you, without you" by George Harrison. :
##When you have seen beyond yourself,##
yadaa pashyasi svaatmaanaM vihaaya |
##then you may find peace of mind is waiting there...##
tadaa saMpratiikShyasi manaHprasaadaH ||
##And the time will come when you see we are all one##
drakShyasyekabhaavena sarvaan.h kaalenaatmani |
##and life flows on within you and without you."##
saMkSharati jiivitvam antarbaahyashcha svaatmani ||
Another question was translation of
"Live your life with no regrets" or "Life, no regrets" or "No regrets".
jiivaH maa shuchaH |
Or the famous lines in the Gita: na anushochitum arhasi | or maa shuchaH |
##Ishvara eva me parIkShakaH |## only god can judge me
The OM maNi padme huM is a famous Buddhist mantra commmonly found written in Tibetan script. A simple search on internet will return many sites with meaning, sound clip, and interpretation. For example, see Dharma Heaven site.
We are also faced with difficulty with some requests where a reverse translation is sought.
The request for translation is easy to make but one has to understand
the context and the origin of thoughts. For example,
a translation of words related to Buddha's eightfold path was requested
to which a quick response based on just the words alone would be,
Vision ## dR^iShTii
## Emotion ## bhaavanaa
## Speech ## vaachaa
## Action ## karman
## Awareness ## avadhaana
## Effort ## prayatna
## Livelihood ## upajiivana
## Concentration ## ekaagrataa
The reverse translation is not unique, given the richness of the language. It will turn out to be inadequate when Buddha's teaching is studied. In comparison, refer to the article in Wikipedia on Buddhism. See also reference in a dictionary.
Someone wanted the etymological root of the name of the mountain "Kailas" (kailAsha in Hindi).
From Amarakosha commentary
1. kelaasa=sphaTika (crystal) - derivation: ke = jale laasaH = lasanaM asya -> kelaasaH (one that shines in water = crystal) made of/formed with kelaasa is kailaasa
2. keliinaaM samuuhaH = kailaM tena aasyate atra aasa upaveshane - a place where you play around (could be a great name for an amusement park !!!)
The place is reported as belonging to kubera, even though Shiva lives there.
One questioner asked to translate "Software Engineer" in Sanskrit. The words praNaalii\-praj~na may be suitable. This is in view of the fact that praNaalii is sometimes used as a synonym for a program - sequence of instructions. One possible objection is that the word might refer more to a software expert rather than an engineer, but an engineer better be an expert, shouldn't (s)he? If preferred, you may replace the praj~na by abhiyantaa - the official word for engineer, making a praNaalyabhiyantaa, but it does not sound so good (:-))
Also, for a "simulation," pratibhaasana as an equivalent to simulation. It is proposed that the root prati+bhaas be used for simulate. The word pratibhaasana does have a meaning of look, appearance, illusion. It might be appropriate to attach this additional meaning to it. Along the same lines, anu+bhaas can be used for modeling, if needed. Alternatively, chhadma = simulation. In some contexts vyapadesha may apply.
There are large books published by Government of India on the glossary of terms in Sanskrit translated from the newer English words. The Government of India has set-up a "Commission of Scientific and Technical Terminology" that publishes IT terminologies and technical and scientific terminologies in Hindi. Visit http://cstt.nic.in. Some of the files are not available but interested individual can purchase the books.
If you want to see Sanskrit words written in Devanagari (some call these "symbols") script (Sanskrit language), please use web-interface, or download freeware PC based program Itranslator99 or newer Itranslator2003 available at Omkarananda Ashram site http://www.omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html.
Many people ask us for suitable baby names. We do not have a database of names. We suggest you search the internet for such collection. Here are some sites with names and their meanings. We wish you good luck in selecting appropriate meanigful name.
Asian names. Check one page higher too.
India A2Z. Look for baby names tab on the right top.
Analysis of your name, what is in a name?, interesting information, try it out. Additional places are thinkbabynames.com, BabynamesGarden, babynamesworld.com, indiaexpress.com, and babyzone.com.
Here are a couple of Hindi translation services: BharatVani Translation Service at http://www.intelindia.com/hinditeacher/translation.html. Others are http://www.worldlingo.com/languages/hindi_translation.html, http://hindifast.websitelogic.com/wwwboard/messages/39.html, and http://www.hindifast.com/dictionary.html.
One individual asked if there are terminology available for words like breakfast, tea, snacks et cetera for use in the daily practice. Use Breakfast = prAtarAshaH . snacks = upAhAraH. There are conversational help files in learning_tools section on this site.
"""For New-Sanskrit, there are two books available
- N.D. Krishnamurthy et al., Conversational Sanskrit, Bangalore 1984
- S.S. Janaki, Spoken Sanskrit, Madras 1990, ISBN 81-85170-04-5
The book by Janaki is of higher quality than the one by Krishnamurthy. In the book of Janaki, you will find a lot of Sanskrit dialogues on modern topics such as movies, newpapers, office, politics etc. and you will even find a dialog about the tennis matches of J.Connors, B.Borg, J.McEnroe etc. etc. The interesting (and scholary) aspect of this book by Janaki is the fact that new vocabulary is divided into "derived" (from ancient texts) and "coined" (as Neo-Sanskrit), so that you can see what is attestable and what is an invention.
The most modern Neo-Sanskrit words are found in the comparatively new German-Sanskrit dictionary by Mylius, first published in 1988. Here you will find Sanskrit words for many things never used by the ancient people in India, e.g. Sanskrit words for "telephone" etc.""" Ulrich
One person asked for a message translation for his girlfriend who is supposed to be well versed in Sanskrit
To my dearest friend, You have touched my life in a way that I cannot express. You have touched my soul in a way that words cannot say. You will be with me always as I will be with you.
##he priyatama mitra, tvayaa mama jiivanaM spR^iShTam | tasya varNanaM shabdaiH na kartuM shaknomi | tvayaa mama jiivaH spR^iShTaH | tasya vachanaM shabdaiH na saMbhavaH | tvaM mayaa saha sadaiva bhaviShyasi yathaa ahaM tvayaa saha bhaviShyaami |##
Such questions and answers are very educational to volunteers who address replies on regular basis. However, it adds to the volume of messages-forwards-replies-clarification. Therefore we suggest that you first try to address them in different on-line and email forums: sanskrit-digest, subhaashhita egroup, indology (see groups.yahoo.com for rejuvenated group), advaita-L, mailgate, humanities.language.sanskrit, ambaa-L, dvaita, and alt.hindu (newsgroup not active any more).
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Thank you for considering us worthy of monetary help. There is a subhaashhita in Sanskrit
You are certainly one of very few individuals interested in promoting Sanskrit related activities! :-)
There is a cost associated with any activity; the cost be it money, time, or physical-mental efforts, and it depends on what one values. It is not enough just to wish to promote such activities, or talk about India's glorious past, but must be followed by involvement at many levels.
For lack of time, some prefer to promote activities by contributing money. If you consider this option, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org for details about sending money with the amount you have in mind. In addition to recovering the maintenance cost, we also have identified projects where your "gift" will be valuable. We would like to support the institutions in India and abroad to promote Sanskrit teaching/learning and associated publications. It is a large undertaking, so if funds permit, we will like to explore the possibility.
As far as covering expenses for maintaining the documents' site is concerned, we are looking for volunteers who can fund this on monthly or yearly or one-time basis. There is a misconception that we get paid by "number of hits" on the site like the sites with advertisements do. It is far from it.
Your contributions are welcome. Here is an option using Paypal account.
If you prefer to contribute differently, please send a note on email@example.com so that we can provide additional information. At present, we are planning to list the monetary contributors separately. Advertisement of organization or some sort of promotion is not encouraged. By your contribution, however, we will be able to relieve volunteers of their payment of additional several months as you will become one of the volunteers. We do recognize volunteers in contribution list who have helped us one way or other.
Monetary help apart, we value your time and efforts in browsing the site, and in encoding, proofreading, translating the documents, and help us maintain the site. We do get a steady stream of requests to volunteer, but for some reason, most do not pursue it further, more than an initial contact. We consider it to be a drawback in our communication system or web site. We would like your feedback on it.
To be practical (as many wish to contribute but back-off reasoning the necessity of sending money), we suggest that you spend some quiet time with yourself, enjoying the nature and peace around you. Sanskrit language is just a tool, and we hope that you will use it to improve "quality of your life." You could continue your studies in Sanskrit literature by reading document of your choice, or follow your own interests in the literature.
You are welcome to pass on the information about the site, and the texts, processing and learning tools, to your friends.
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Yes. There are a few avenues depending on the size of the text, output format, and your level of computer familiarity.
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This is a very "loaded" question. It was addressed elaborately using
Monier William's dictionary explanation. Due to the length of the message it is
kept in a separate file and is linked here.
Again, such questions sometimes require considerable searching, so we recommend that they be addressed to forums: sanskrit-digest, indology (see groups.yahoo.com for rejuvenated group), advaita-L, ambaa-L, dvaita, and alt.hindu (newsgroup not active any more).
hindumythology has an excellent explanation of such questions. It will be educational for you to spend time reading the question-answers at Why do we?
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The OCR for Indian Languages, including Sanskrit is developed by Oliver Hellwig, at http://www.indsenz.com with a link from http://www.sanskritreader.de/ . A demo version is given with limited features and full feature version can be purchased using Paypal.
The Indian-Language Technologies has a major project for the Devanagari OCR (Optical Character Recognition) development. It is part of the Center of Excellence in Document Analysis and Recognition (CEDAR), at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF), US and the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta, India. A sample truthing tool is available for download with different samples of OCR. The output is generated in Itrans based text file. The effort is led by Dr. Venugopal Govindaraju.
The Center for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC), India has also developed, among many excellent commercial products, an OCR called Chitrankan or at OCR research. The software is applicable currently to Devanagari with embedded English text and has potential for extension to other languages.
Google form posting mentions about a new OCR using tesseract-ocr-setup and gimagereader that is applicable for Hindi OCR. It will need modification to handle conjunts in Sanskrit. See also details of the tesseract-ocr project.
Some work is also in progress at IIIT, Hyderabad. Currently these OCRs can handle texts available in computer-fonts only. So it can be useful for the old Sanskrit texts.
Obviously there seem to be considerable difficulties.
Many, like you, are eagerly waiting for the release of such technology. A
reference. to Hindi OCR development
http://www.mumbai-central.com/nukkad/archive1997/msg00277.html Prof. Srihari & colleagues have done a lot of research in this area.
http://www.cedar.buffalo.edu/~taohong/WWW/PAPERS/ICCIMA97.pdf You may want to contact him for details.
An attempt was made to develop Tibetan OCR at Bell laboratories. Please see Professor Kurt Keutzer's notes: Some Thoughts on Optical Character Recognition of Tibetan
Consider finding more information in Language Technology Laboratory at Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur site. There was a presentation on the topic of Devanagari OCR in Proceedings of Symposium on Translation Support Systems STRANS-2002.
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The Unicode support is available with Itrans 5.3 onwards. Please see http://www.aczoom.com/ or write to Avinash Chopde for the latest information. He has allowed Unicode character input in the web interface.
The Sanskrit documents are presented in Devanagari Unicode script at Unicode page. Not all texts are converted in Devanagari yet so please use PDF files in individual categories.
With so many "blog" sites available, one can generate a Unicode output using following writing pad sites. Almost all allow conversion or display in other Indian scripts. If you find others, please send a note.
Use Google Translator for translation between various languages including Hindi. Try converting word Sanskrit.
Unicode characters supporting Devanagari are
http://czyborra.com/unicode/characters.html and a note at this site. A "FAQ of Indic Scripts and Languages" is available at http://www.unicode.org/faq/indic.html. See also http://www.unicode.org/~emuller/southasia/vedic. Several examples of Vedic symbols found in different manuscripts are compiled in vaidika-evidence.pdf
A new mailing list has been formed on this subject. You can subscribe to it by writing to firstname.lastname@example.org, and see their archive at http://www.egroups.com/group/uniglyph/.
Also please contact Jost Gippert of Titus project and Dominik Wuzastyk of indology mailing list (see groups.yahoo.com for rejuvenated group) for more information.
One useful link is http://www.tamil.net/people/sivaraj/unicode.html and the general newsgroups at mailgate, unicode.
For Roman with diacritic marks, there is a table that shows how to map every CS/CSX+ character to Unicode (sometimes requires multiple Unicode characters). ftp://bombay.oriental.cam.ac.uk/pub/john/software/programs/ is the folder containing some utilities, ``csxp2ur.c'' is a C program that contains the table mapping. CSX+ itself is defined here: ftp://bombay.oriental.cam.ac.uk/pub/john/software/fonts/csx+/ in the CSX+.def file.
The Unicode Standard 4.0 (2003) does not support accented Vedic texts. Only two Vedic accents were defined by the Unicode consortium, whereas approximate 50 Vedic accents/characters/svaras would be required for encoding the various Vedic texts. See Vedic Code Set (vedic.pdf) in http://tdil.mit.gov.in/pchangeuni.htm and 29 Samaveda accents listed in http://www.sanskritweb.de/sans99sv.pdf.
The Unicode Standard 4.0, published in August 2003, page 219, stipulates: "The Unicode Standard remains a super-set of the ISCII-1991 repertoire except for a number of new Vedic extension characters defined in IS 13194:1991 Annex G.Extended Character Set for Vedic. Modern, non-Vedic texts encoded with ISCII-1991 may be automatically converted to Unicode code points."
In October 2002, TDIL, India, submitted a draft concerning Vedic accents to the Unicode Consortion. This draft is documented in the file Vedic.pdf downloadable from the site http://tdil.mit.gov.in/pchangeuni.htm
Yet the Unicode Consortium rejected completely this draft made by TDIL in 2003 for the new Unicode Standard 4.0 published in 2003. What is more: The Unicode Standard 4.0 expressly excludes Vedic characters as stated in above quotation.
Question: If there are more than one Unicode fonts in your fonts system, is there any way to select one of your choice?
Web browsers have a setting that says which font to use for which encoding. Firefox has ability to have different font for each language, in each encoding. Go to Tools -> Options -> Content, click on Advanced, and in there, for example, you can choose the encoding (Unicode in this case), and then the language ("Devanagari"), and select the correct Unicode font you want.
In Internet Explorer, you can use Tools -> Internet Options, General tab, click on Font, and then select Language Script and font as needed.
These techniques apply only when no font is defined in the web page - if the web page specifies "Arial Unicode MS", then that setting will always (most of the time!) be used...
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Emotions apart, this is a too general request and the best way is to use the many search-engines available on the Internet. http://education.vsnl.com/ has a fascinating index of links to organizations from India.
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Sanskrit Bharati organizes such camps, correspondence courses, intensive conversational courses and publishes related documents. Please write to the coordinators at distance learning with Samskrita Bharati.
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Visit http://www.yojna.org/ and http://www.visuallychallenged.com/ for some specific information.
Additionally, these are listed as "Braille" producers in India.
Blind Relief Assoc. Lal Bahadur Shastri Marg (near Hotel Oboroi) 110003 New Delhi India +91 11-436 1376 v S.S.S.B.PUBLICATIONS, MR SUHAS LELE, C/O M/s M-A/43,1ST FLOOR, NR. ASHIANA TRADE CENTER, ADITYAPUR, JAMSHEDPUR:832109,(JHARKHAND STATE), INDIA TEL. No. :91-657-3130388,91-657-3110814,91-712-3115508. Email: email@example.com http://www.geocities.com/suhas_lele2002/orderform.html Rashtriya Drishtibaditarth Sansthan Bharat 116 Rajpur Rd 248 001 Dehradun India +91 135-24491 v +95 135-29944 f Blind Men's Association Dr Vikram Sarabhai Rd. Vastrapur 380 015 Ahmedebad Gujarat India +91 79-440082 v +91 79-448106 f National Assoc for the Blind 11 Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan Rd Worli Seaface 400 025 Bombay India +91 22-493 5370 v +91 22-493 2539 f Society for the Visually Handicapped Apt 1B,12 Dover Rd. 700 019 Calcutta W. Bengal India +91 33-475 9581 v +91 33-243 0787 f B.K. Rath; Braille Press Project City Hospital Road 760001 Berhampier Orissa
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We do not have a list of such sites as it is easier to do a search on the internet.
Meanwhile you can browse some audios at:
on-line Sanskrit audio links
http://www.saigan.com/ under Heritage.
On the lighter, lokasa.ngraha side, the greetings sending feature at http://www.123greetings.com/, dgreetings.com, hindunet.org, ganeshchatrurthi.net, happydurgapuja.com, rakshabandhan.net, rakhi-greetings.com, ganeshchaturthi.net/, 101holidays.com, and dharmachintan (by Shri Stephen Knapp) may interest you in addition to the audio. Some of these greetings are sorted by religion, festivals, and deities.
A set of interesting screensavers and wallpapers are available at 1, 3, 4.
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Although one can easily come up with such a list, we have to find a purpose for doing it. It is easy to get carried away in the talk of "glorious vedic past" than implement the ideas in present conditions. There is a danger in "promoting" superficial understanding of our ancestors, how they lived, and the thoughts they carried out through verbal and written exchanges. Words convey ideas so if the ideas, which are written in Sanskrit, are conveyed, the words would come automatically, or need not be followed. If it promotes healthy transformation then it is acceptable and nurturing to individuals, but most of the time the zeal degenerates into mere outwardly "conversion" process.
The vocabulary has its own dynamism and has to follow its own course of assimilation into languages. So if the 2001 words are followed or portrayed with 2001 ideas with extended meanings, it will be a revolutionary undertaking. It will then be easier to circulate for others to judge.
As a reference, let us begin with a list with existing English words which can be identified to originate from Sanskrit. We will polish the list later with your input:
karma; guruu; pundita; yoga; raajaa; aarya; svastika; raaj (from raajya but raaj in hindi); dharma; jungle (from ja.ngala); buddha (although many mistakenly pronounce it as buDDhaa which in Hindi is a very old person!); nirvaaNa; juggernaut (jagganath).
Refer to two 1, 2) articles titled "Guru in English" by Saurin Desai on the influence of Sanskrit on English. He elaborates on the Sanskrit words which are commonly used in English: Mandala, Svastika, Guru, Yoga, Dharma, Arya, Ashram, Pundit, Kamasutra, Nirvana, Avatar, Mantra, Chakras, Singapore, Mandarin, Musk, Juggernaut, Cheetah, Bandana, Chintz, Loot et cetera.
The words mentioned above are what are called "loaned" words. Some others are "obliquely" related and we will need help from etymologists: mind to mana, man to manu, father to pitR^i, mother to maatR^i, brother to bhraatR^i, riti to ritual, ambrosia to amR^ita, three to tri, sept in september to sapta, oct to octa or ashhTa, dec in december deca to dasha (some scholars relate the months starting from March as original first month related to Vernal Equinox or Jyotish calendar with first month chaitra being in March. With this start, the 7th month is September, eighth is October, tenth is December et cetera. The current popular calendar, termed as Christian, changed the sequence, however), sugar to sharkaraa, medium ro madhyam, and so on.
Read articles on Sanskrit Puns by Richard Stoney (or here) of Orleans, CA. Some of the articles include "Sambacus, Etymology and Ethnobotany," "Gulliver's Travels and its Sanskrit Puns," "Sources of the Word Yahoo," "English Words derived from Sanskrit," "Hindu Linguistical Influence in Northern Europe: 1200-1600" and more. Also available is A theory that some English words are actually Sanskrit-like and English Words You Speak from Sanskrit.
As Latin is closely related to Sanskrit, English words originated from Latin may find a "cousin" in Sanskrit.
The following sites are useful:
Some additional words are
Root Sanskrit Word Median Word in Latin(L) / Greek(G) / Arabic(A) Derived English Word Gau (meaning Cow) Bous (G) Cow Matr (meaning Mother) Mater (L) Mother Jan (meaning Generation) Genea (G) Gene Aksha (meaning Axis) Axon (G) Axis Navagatha (meaning Navigation) Navigationem (L) Navigation Sarpa (meaning Snake) Serpentem (L) Serpent Naas (means Nose) Nasus (L) Nose Anamika (means Anonymous) Anonymos (G) Anonymous Naama (means Name) Nomen (L) Name Manu (means First Human) ?? Man/Men/Human Ashta (meaning Eight) Octo (L) Eight Barbara (meaning Foreign) Barbaria (L) Barbarian Dhama (meaning House) Domus (L) Domicile Danta (meaning Teeth) Dentis (L) Dental Dwar (meaning Door) Doru Door Dasha (meaning Ten) Deca (G) Deca Madhyam (meaning Medium) Medium (L) Medium Kaal (meaning Time) Kalendae (L) Calendar Kri (meaning To Do) Creatus (L) Create Mishra (meaning Mix) Mixtus (L) Mix Ma (meaning Me/My) Me (L) Me Pithr (meaning Father) Pater (L) Father Bhrathr (meaning Brother) Phrater (G) Brother Loka (meaning Place) Locus (L) Locale Maha (meaning Great) Magnus (L) Mega Mala (meaning Dirt/Bad) Malus (L) Mal as in Malicious, Malnutrition, Malformed etc Makshikaa (meaning Bee) Musca (L) (Meaning Fly) Mosquito Mrta (meaning Dead) Mortis (L) Murder Na (meaning No) Ne No Nakta (meaning Night) Nocturnalis (L) Nocturnal Paad (meaning Foot) Pedis (L) Ped as in Pedestrial, Pedal etc Pancha (meaning Five) Pente (G) Penta, Five Parah (meaning Remote) Pera (G) Far Patha (meaning Path) Pathes (G) Path Raja / Raya (meaning King) Regalis (L) Royal Sama (meaning Similar) Similis (L) Similar Sapta (meaning Seven) Septum (L) Seven Sharkara (meaning Sugar) Succarum Sugar / Sucrose Smi (meaning Smile) Smilen (L) Smile SthaH (meaning Situated) Stare (L) (meaning To Stand) Stay Svaad (meaning Tasty) Suavis (L) Sweet Tha (meaning That) Talis (L) That Tva (meaning Thee) Dih Thee Vachas (meaning Speech) Vocem (L) Voice Vahaami (meaning Carry) Vehere (meaning to Carry) (L) Vehicle Vama / Vamati (meaning Vomit) Vomere (L) Vomit Vastr (meaning Cloth) Vestire (L) Vest Yauvana (meaning Youth) Juvenilis (L) Juvenile Narangi (meaning Orange) Naranj Orange Pippali (meaning Pepper) Piperi (G) Pepper Chandana (meaning Sandalwood) Santalon (G) Sandalwood Chandra (meaning Moon) Candela (L) (meaning light / torch) Candle Chatur (meaning Four) Quartus (L) Quarter Shunya (meaning Zero) Cipher (A) Zero a (prefix meaning .not. ex: gochara . agochara) a (L)(G) (prefix meaning .not.) a (prefix meaning .not. ex: theiest-atheist an (prefix meaning .not. ex: avashya . anavashya) un (L)(G) (prefix meaning .not.) un (prefix meaning .not. ex: do-undo Arjuna (meaning Charm of Silver) Argentinum (L) Argentinum . Scientific Name of Silver Nava (meaning New) Novus (L) Nova . New Kafa (meaning Mucus) Coughen Cough Mithya (meaning Lie) Mythos (G) Myth Thri (meaning Three) Treis (G) Three Mush (meaning Mouse) Mus (L) Mouse Maragadum (meaning Emerald) Smaragdus (L) Emerald Ghritam (meaning Ghee) ?? Ghee Srgalah (meaning Jackal) Shagal (Persian) Jackal Nila (meaning Dark Blue) Nilak (Persian) Lilac Srgalah Shagal (Persian) Jackal Man (Ma as in Malaysia) (meaning Mind) Mens (L) Mind Upalah (meaning Precious Stone) Opalus (L) Opal Vrihis (meaning Rice) Oriza (L) Rice Upalah (meaning Precious Stone) Opalus (L) Opal
Please send your input/words to firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Dr. Vineet Chaitanya [ email@example.com ] is
leading a group of developers. Some of his work is reflected at URL:
http://anu.tdil.gov.in/introduction.sureKa/anu_flyer.txt.html The most recently updated web material on anusaaraka at
http://tdil.mit.gov.in/download/shabdhabodha/shabdhabodha.html and to his earlier book on NLP for languages in India which he co-authored with Akshar Bharati and Rajeev Sangal (i.e. Natural Language Processing: A Paninian Perspective, Prentice-Hall of India, 1995) The tdil.gov.in site may be slow or down as it may not support 24 hours access.
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Emacs supports the Devanagari script and other languages from India. See www.gnu.org for the details. Otherwise the Itrans processor with LaTeX is portable to Unix/Linux and one can generate displays in postscript/PDF formats.
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Some of the documents carry translations in English. Most of these are provided by volunteers. We have also provided links to different sites where such translations are available, keeping us away from copyright issues. We do not encourage encoding "copyrighted" translations from printed books published by various religious organizations and publishing houses. They have done commendable work and our intention is only to provide the texts in Devanagari format with provision to do word searches from the encoded material.
For your information, there is an excellent discussion available on the Indology site about "myths of copyright".
Please see the following sites for translations of some of the documents. Investindia.com appears to be discontinued.
Mantras are not to be translated but should be "earned" from a qualified teacher, and by sincerity and practice. If you are interested in any, please search and find that suits you. For example, see http://www.shivashakti.com/, http://www.vatikashaktipeeth.com/, Mantras and meanings, Syllables and their mystical meanings, http://www.sanatansociety.org/ Mantras and Mystery of Initiation and so on.
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Every font has a different keyboard mapping so it does not matter what fonts you have. If you viewed or copied/pasted the XDVNG display output in Word, you need the XDVNG font, which is available in http://sanskritdocuments.org/processing_tools/. Download the xdvng.ttf font file and save it in your c:\windows\fonts\ or such folder and restart the browser. The instructions are elaborated below.
Different formats of the files and their viewers are listed in http://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_9_formats.html, ,for example, the .pdf file needs Acrobat reader, .ps file needs Ghostview/Ghostscript combination.
You may like Itranslator which has nicecr fonts and better control for your Word output. You will need to use the encoded portion of ITX/TXT file and treat it as in input in Itranslator. Try it out. The software is available at http://www.omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html.
There are installation instructions for the XDVNG fonts in the procecssing_tools folder.
In general, to install a true type font on Windows95/98
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A critical edition of Mahabharata, originally published by Bhandarkar
Oriental Research Institute (BORI) was encoded by Professor Tokunaga of Japan.
It was further edited and processed by Prof. John Smith of UK and Shree Devi
Kumar. BORI holds copyright on the text. The older version of Devanagari display
is available at
You will have to install XDVNG font (.ttf for a PC windows). XDVNG was built from Frans Velthuis' DVNG fonts and are avaialble for different platforms.
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You can use following interfaces to generate Devanagari script of your name: web-interface, Vinay Jain's HiTrans on giitaayan.com, Sanscript, aksharamukha online tools or install an excellent PC-Windows freeware available at Omkarananda Ashram sites at http://www.omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html or Baraha is another non-Itrans based software tool. See others listed on this page. These software allow to write Devanagari letters with control over the letter size and have well devloped publishing quality fonts. It is also very easy to install them. Many fine artists and tattoo artists have used these, although for a Sanskrit student this practice appears odd.
There are commercial sites performing tattoo design with Sanskrit Devanagari script for a fee, such as Scott Jones' Tattoo by design in UK or Jaydeep's onlinetattootranslations in Chennai, India, or Vince Hemingson's vanishingtattoo, Vivek Kumar's 2indya.com et cetera. Kiran's freetranslationblog is also available for free translation of words/sentences and follows a voluntary spirit. All consider different languages and art forms. http://www.sanskrittattoo.info/ is very informative site and has many examples listed.
There are various opinions about tattooing. The discussion about tattooing with Devanagari script came in sharp focus due to the tattoo of David Beckham's wife's name Victoria. Phonetically, the tattoo is correct, unless Britishers pronounce Vi as in "we". The distinction in the sound "we" (wicket, wicked, wish) should be made with "v" (vindicate, vital, viscous, similar to wheat, white). (In contrast, "ve" in Veda is pronounced and written as "way" and not "ve" as in vendetta.) Listen to an audio of the name Victoria and see the pronunciation guide. The discussion about its incorrectness at different sites such as beckham-magazine or audarya is out of ignorance and mainly because many Hindi speakers refuse to accept the conjunct w+h as v in their pronunciation. It is true that there is no word in Hindi staring with the conjunct, but Devanagari script, with its phonetic base, is much more powerful and allows pronunciations more than that of a Hindi speaker.
The discussion apart, we would like you to be more aware of the art form, and to express yourself and your image through a tattoo. See the sites for example: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, et cetera. The question as why Devanagari tattoo (which is mostly meant as tattooed text in Devanagari script not Sanskrit, as Sanskrit or Hindi is a language and not a script)
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For serious studies,
please consult Gudrun Bühnemann's Sanskrit studies list for Worldwide Universities and institutions offering Sanskrit courses and another at
Sanskrit and Indological research institutes in India.
The Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, National Sanskrit Establishment, Department of Education, Government of India's site has many links to the organizations and individuals who are instrumental in promoting Sanskrit in India.
In addition, the following information will be useful:
Download/or-read-online Charles Wikner's tutorial available at
http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/index.html This brings you upto the level of being able to read Monier Williams' dictionary.
Master Sanskrit Easily written and presented by Dr. Narayan Kansara of Ahmedabad. This is an extensive 301 page tutorial and is well formatted for two sided booklet printing. The entire text is in Roman with Diacritics. Its details are summarized in the Preface text file. Get the PDF files as Title, Parts 1, 2, and 3.
aravindAshrame sa.nskR^itam at http://sanskrit.sriaurobindoashram.org.in/ is a site for various online display and audio of Sanskrit tutorials, magazine from Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry. The publications can be ordered from SABDA, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Puducherry - 605 002, India. For Ordering Information http://www.sabda.in.
Other tutorials are at
You may also want to take a Sanskrit text and study it word by word.
Many useful self-study tutorials are linked from learning tools of this site.
Following links cover distance learning / correspondence courses / personal coaching / colleges and universities for Sanskrit studies
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In your web browser, check if the [User Defined] category in [Menu]/[View]/[Encoding] on Internet Explorer browser, and [Menu]/[View]/[Character Set] on Netscape browser, is selected. If it is not, select it. You may have to check it each time that the characters get displayed wrongly!
Some of the .html files are coded with .pfr portion which does not require such menu selection, but we have found that on some computers it does not work. The menu selection is hence reliable method.
Many ask us about the keyboard map of the XDVNG font. We do not have keyboard layout for XDVNG since the text is not directly entered using the fonts. Search the elemental typefaces which resembles the character map of the font. Character map is Windows feature and is often executed with [Start]/[Run] and type charmap. If this does not activate it, you will need to install it from Windows installation CD.
For those keen on using Internet explorer, may find that the html/XDVNG text displays improperly. The displayed texts show blank spaces arbitrarily and gets harder to read. Ulrich Stiehl has modified the original Xdvng.ttf font to take care of font display bugs of Microsoft's faulty Internet Explorer 5.5, 6.0 inserting "random spaces" into html files. The modified fonts are available in ht processing_tools_fonts section. The changes are not uniformly applied to all the files and reader is requested to download and edit the html file with XDVNG letters changed to XDVNGmod and redisplay. The new Xdvng font versions are not needed for other browsers, as the "random spaces" bug is specific to Internet Explorer, but it does not harm to use the new Xdvng fonts with other browsers.
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With the abundant availability of Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, documents on-line, we are a little hesitant to expand our efforts in that direction! We rely wholly on volunteers, and if someone offers to submit transliterated/proof-read texts, your suggestion may become practical.
Do not get disappinted though. A great tool is available at http://girgit.chitthajagat.in/ that allows to read Unicode code texts in your favorite language script.
For example, enter http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/ in the Site on the top, Select a Language, Click Go and look at Tranliteration tab. (There are only a few texts displayed in Unicode on this page. Rest are in the http://sanskritdocuments.org/ documents; subcategory.)
This site transliterates from one Indian Unicode Script to another and English. One can transliterate Sanskrit documents to English, Gujarati, Punjabi, Bengali, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada etc. If a Stotra is typed into one of the Unicode Language it can be easily converted into another as above.
In addition, you may want to explore the following
http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~kulki/kannada/kanindex.html There is an excellent package to generate Kannada and Devanagari texts at http://www.baraha.com/ For Tamil, use Tamil1, Tamil2.
For Telugu, use Telugu1. Telugu stotras are available at http://www.stotralahari.com.
Also, visit the Digital Library of India sites linked from http://sanskritdocuments.org/scannedbooks with hundreds of scanned books.
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To remove the misconception, please see the following tutorial by Charles Wikner and links to other tutorials given above which are useful entries for a beginner.
Charles Wikner's tutorial
Other Sanskrit tutorials are listed above.
There are some excellent articles available at American Sanskrit Institute along with study guides and audio/graphic courses.
Please see a short List of Words Common to Indo European languages. A collection of articles related to Antecedents of Sanskrit Language is available at Hinduwebsite.com. It includes relation of Greek, English, Latin and other European languages with Sanskrit. There is also a www.Hindu-Forum.org that can give additional links.
We have not been able to get enough information about the language history, grammar et cetera. We have made a list of projects at http://sanskritdocuments.org/ but have only had occasional response from the contributors. Some of the information might be covered on other sites. Thanks for your note so as we can think of how we can add or link the material you have mentioned.
It may also be useful to look at the dictionaries at most visited page http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/.
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We have very limited information on this topic. We would certainly like to have the details as a subgroup on the topic of Sanskrit and computer science. Dr. Vinoy is going to provide some additional information.
Dr. Vineet Chaitanya is active in Hyderabad, IIIT (information technology).
Prof. R. Kalyanakrishnan is at (firstname.lastname@example.org) IITMadras who has
developed multilingual software at
http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/ They have a page on Linguistics and Computation
We found couple of useful articles at Bharat Bhasha homepage related to Computer and languages from India. Another mentionable work in computational linguistics is of Dr. Girish Nath Jha and his students at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, India.
Here is an addition from Dr. Vineet Chaitanya of IIIT, Hyderabad: As far as our group is concerned, we have been emphasizing role of Sanskrrit Shastras and not of the Sanskrit language as such. We have presented some information in a book "Natural Language Processing: A Paninian Perspective," Akshar Bharati, Vineet Chaitanya, Rajeev Sangal, Prentice-Hall of India, 1995.
Dr. Rajeev Sangal is coordinating the project. He is the Director of Language Technologies Research Center (L.T.R.C) at I.I.I.T Hyderabad. His E-mail address is email@example.com
There has not been any M.Tech project on much desired `sandhi viccheda'. Mrs. Amba Kulkarni has done her M.Tech project on building a bridge on Navya-Nyaaya and FirstOorder Predicate calculus under Prof. Sangal's supervision at I.I.T. Kanpur.
No significant work has been done on `samaasa vigraha' either, in our group except some observations and notes by Prof. K.V. Ramkrishnamachayulu.
At I.I.T. Kanpur Dr. D.K.Jha was the only one Sanskrit scholar in the project staff. There was a joint project with Central University of Hyderabad and I.I.T. Kanpur on anusaaraka (an approach for a kind of Machine Translation among languages from India, the inspiration for which was derived from Paninian insight).
Now at L.T.R.C./I.I.I.T. we do have a number of Sanskrit post graduates working with us as a part of two year training program in which we try to identify the concepts from Sanskrit Shastras which may be relevant for current research and developement work in Natural Language Processing. Rashtriya Sanskrita Vidyapeetha, Tirupati has deputed Prof. K.V. Ramkrishnamachayulu for this activity. Dr. G. Umamaheshvar Rao of Central University Hyderabad is also participating in this work.
From Vineet Chaitanya.
IIT Kanpur organizes Symposium on Translation Support Systems (STRANS 2002) which may add to this information Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur India Feb 24-26, 2002 http://www.cse.iitk.ac.in/strans.html
Some of the broad level topics of interest to the symposium are listed below: * Translation Strategies - Rule based/Knowledge based - Example/Corpus based - Hybrid - English to Indian-languages - Indian-Languages to English - MAT, MAHT, HAMT - Pre and Post-editing needs and techniques * Word-net * Lexical Data-base Creation and Management * Morphological Analyzers * Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval * NLP Grammar * Correction of Ill-formed Sentences * Corpus Analysis, Tagging * Parallel Corpus Analysis, Statistical Dictionary * Front-end Systems - OCR - Speech - Coding schemes (ISCII, Unicode) - Other Interfaces * Back-end Systems - Speech - Display, Printing, Formatting - Fonts * Web Based Applications * Aids for Document Creation - Spell checkers - Thesaurus, Terminology aids - Grammatical aids - Editing software * Transliteration Among Indian-Scripts - Indian-Scripts to English - English to Indian-Scripts * Societal Aspects * Ergonomic Aspects General Chairs S.G. Dhande,Director IIT Kanpur Om Vikas, MIT, Delhi Program Committee Chair R.M.K.Sinha, IIT Kanpur (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) STRANS 2002 Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering IIT Kanpur-208016 (INDIA) Fax: (+91-512)-590725 Phone: (+91-512)- 597174 / 597642
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Please see a comprehensive list of projects. We also have made a list of pending items to help volunteers choose from our immediate needs. Please email us at email@example.com to ask for the status of these projects if you are willing to pursue one. We have been successful in finding only handful of volunteers who have committed to a project on long term basis. We hope that you will have time and interest to look into this list carefully and will consider participating. If you are serious about volunteering, we recommend that you copy the form and send us the information over email. Additional help is available here.
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The purpose of various formats is to allow viewers from different computer platforms and browsers to see Devanagari text. A list of formats, their explanation, and links to viewers is give here. To have complete capability to view documents in any format, we suggest that you install
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Itrans or ITRANS is a freeware program developed by Avinash Chopde, initially to fulfill wishes of Hindi songs enthusiasts to exchange Hindi songs over email (ASCII) and have them processed to display in Devanagari script on any browser. It subsequently encompassed other language scripts as suitable fonts were freely available. It is mainly a processor which takes help of TeX/LaTeX capabilities to generate postscript files as display.
The scheme used to enter the Devanagari or other scripts is known as Itrans scheme. A sample table is given here. Please see a concise table showing ITRANS encoding for all supported languages and fonts or documents with detailed transliteration map for each language separately from Avinash Chopde's ITRANS site.
Avinash has also built a PC based commercial software in collaboration with Shreekrishna Patil. Mr. Patil, a wirey-firey 80+ aged youth, has prepared fonts for almost all language scripts from India.
Recently, two devoted Swami-s (monks) of Omkarananda Ashram of Rishikesh, India, developed a PC based freeware to generate WYSIWYG text in Devanagari using the same input scheme. The software is known as Itranslator99 or newer Itranslator2003 and is available at Omkarananda Ashram sites http://www.omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html, http://www.geocities.com/omkarananda/ or http://www.omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html and is an excellent addition if you have a PC with Windows.
Coming to the question of preparing documents from ASCII text, A file with extension .txt, having the encoded text, is prepared with first two lines for English and Devanagari titles, and ## to complete Devanagari mode. The text is subsequently passed through the following process.
.txt -----> .itx -----> .tex -----> .dvi -----> .ps -----> .gif | ^ ^ ^ |----> .pdf .inf -+ | | | PSTOGIF .hdr -+ | | | PSTOPDF | | | ITRANS LATEX DVIPSVolunteers who enter the text in .txt file either using any editor or Itranslator editor are requested to proofread the document using postscript file.
Although the above process generates displayable documents for on-line purpose, the output is not useful for Windows/MS Word based programs. The output from Itranslator however can be cut and pasted in MSWord or so to reformat the display.
There are other options available at Sparshabhumi site under the category Devanagari & other languages scripts.
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Following are some of the resources regarding audio-visual presentation for Sanskrit learning. This is given only as a reference and does not indicate endorsement of any sort. However, we like to promote them by presenting here as it makes the learning experience modern and possibly easier based on previous background. There is no subsitute for hard work when learning and understanding Sanskrit is concerned.
1) Samskrita Bharati has released a set of two CDs useful for the continued learning of Sanskrit by both beginner and advanced students. Please see http://www.samskrita-bharati.org/. To buy this multimedia learning tool, send a check for $40 along with your name, address, phone number and email ID to
Learn Samskritam CDs Samskrita Bharati 4204 Latimer Avenue San Jose, CA 95130Contact Govinda Rao for additional information.
2) Another CD is available from Manikarnika Srinivasan at a nominal cost about $20. The CD comes with a Sanskrit font called "MUDRIKA" and has about 5000 sound clips for the words and alphabet pronounciation. It has alphabet animation , topics on grammar - Sandhi, Samaasa. Shabhas, Verb, a small dictionary etc. His contact information is
M.Srinivasan 16 WestWood Ave Stony Brook, NY 11790. Tel - 631-233-6760
3) A substantial amount of information about learning Sanskrit including audio cassettes and manuals are available from Vyas Houston, director of American Sanskrit Institute.
Sanskrit learning at Matchless-Gifts.com includes Learn Sanskrit for Beginners (CD-Rom), Bhashika: The Complete Course for Spoken Sanskrit (2 CDs), Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary on CD-Rom, and The Wonder that is Sanskrit (2 CD-Roms) at reasonable cost including shipping. (It also has Hindi Guru and Learn Spoken Hindi).
If you have additional information about such sources please let us know so that we can distribute to interested individuals.
A self-learning CD SanskritashikShikA, http://www.rsvidyapeetha.ac.in/t/advsse.htm produced by Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Rs 260 or 12USD+shipping.
There are many interesting video clips available at YouTube.com and elsewhere. For example, see
Additionally, there are newspapers and magazines in Sanskrit published daily/fortnightly/monthly/quarterly or less frequent.
of Sanskrit periodicals was printed in the sragdharA November 2011
issue (from Bhuwaneshwar, Orissa, India). Venetia Ansell is planning
to compile details of these and other Sanskrit periodicals. If you have
any contact details on these, please send a note to venetia.ansell at gmail dot com .
Among them, here are some which have online contacts.
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Please see The Sanskrit Website-El Sitio Sánscrito en la Web Spanish-Sanskrit-Portuguese learning site maintained and regularly updated by pradIpaka (Gabriel X) and Andrés Muni.
Alejandro Gutman from Buenos Aires, Argentina has developed El Portal de la India Antigua, dedicated to diffuse the achievements of the ancient Indian civilization in the Spanish speaking world. (English translation using Babelfish.yahoo.com.) The site provides many links to books (about 300) and articles (150, and more coming) related to ancient India and those freely available on the web, commented briefly in order to orient people in an increasingly confusing forest of publications. Alejandro has written a few articles on the topics such as cosmogony and eschatology in the Rigveda and translation of several complete hymns. One section intends to be a step by step Sanskrit course based on his own experiences and difficulties with the language. An extensive number of lessons, downloadable in pdf format, are planned.
Hugo Labate has translated various upanishads and other Vedic texts in Spanish in a double column format.
For French, please see Gerard Huet's dictionary, on-line grammar, and links and Andre Signoret's interactive dictionary and grammar sites. Yann Leglise, Yann.Leglise@wanadoo.fr has translated Charles Wikner's Sanskrit introductory into French. It is available in postscript and pdf formats.
See Tantrisme et cultes de Ganesh dans l'hindouisme for Diverses invocations on http://ganapati.club.fr/.
For German, see Sanskrit Deklinationstrainer and Ulrich Stiehl's site in reference to the excellent book Sanskrit-Kompendium and sample pages.
The translation of yogasutras of Patanjali, its commentaries, and links are available in various languages such as Bulgarian, Chinese, Croatian, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Sanskrit, Slovakian, Spanish, and Swedish.at the YSP site There is another in Hindi by Surinder Shanker Anand at http://sites.google.com/site/shankyandy/Patanjal-Yog that is well documented. Also see various texts and useful information in download section. Subhash Mittal has recorded entire Yogasutra in audio format at Yoga Sutra Study Group site.
The translation of Bhagvadgita in French, Dutch, English, and Sanskrit may help to learn Sanskrit. The original English translation is given by Ramanand Prasad of Gita Society.
There is one interesting comparison made between Sanskrit and Latvian at http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi51.htm along with other ancient langauges such as Akkadian, Sumerian et cetera. A comment on Lithuanian and Sanskrit is available here. Also read 1, 2, 3.
Only God knows how our humanity has moved and survived!
There are two articles providing link of Finnish Romanian with Sanskrit at http://www.oph.fi/english/pageLast.asp?path=447;490;15850;15996;15999 and http://www.oph.fi/english/page.asp?path=447;490;15850;15856.
The connection between Serbian and Sanskrit is presented by Vanja ( cheguevanja at hotmail.com) in an article.
The Deutsche Welle presents an audio news program in Sanskrit which is updated every fortnight.
For Russian-Sanskrit studies, please visit
For Portugese, use http://www.geocities.com./baja/6463/inframe.html site built by Tarcisio da Frota. The Bhagvadgita translation is available in Portuguese at http://www.bhagavadgita.hpg.ig.com.br/index.htm . See the search engine for Bhagvadgita, and continue search for Sanskrit and yoga links. Rodrigo Gomes Ferreira, a student of Vedanta under the guidance of Gloria Arieira, who is Swami Dayananda Saraswati's disciple, has started a site www.vedanta.pro.br for Vedanta classes, where you can also find information related to learning Sanskrit through Portugese. Rodrigo is a member of Vedanta and Sanskrit school called Vidya Mandir in Rio de Janeiro. Marco Carvalho presents Yogashara Upanishad in Sanskrit with translation in English and Português.
Flavia Bianchini and Roberto Martins maintain http://www.yogadevi.org/ that provides many translations of Indian traditional texts into Portuguese and Spanish (http://www.yogadevi.org/textos.html). They have also compiled various links related to Yoga, Ayurveda.
Although not directly associated with Sanskrit studies, the Ensinamentos Sagrados da Vedanta, The holy teachings of vedanta site is presented by students of Vedanta and the teachings of Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Many well formatted books in English, Spanish, and Portugese are available for download.
http://aulasdesanscrito.com/ has articles with graphics. See Devanagari alphabets.
A Norwegian translation of the Isha Upanishad is available at http://vindheim.net/poesi/isha.html.
For Dutch, visit http://www.arsfloreat.nl/. It has downloadable files of Dutch translation of Srimad Bhagavatam, Maharamayana - Yoga Vasishtha, Isha Upanishad, and Kena Upanishad. A book on Vedanta by Swami Prabhavananda is among the Dutch translations of Bible and Koran.
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The following articles are a very good reading regarding Sanskrit. These are linked mainly for information and do not indicate our recommendation of views. Some links also relate to organization involved in promotion of Sanskrit. We plan to add articles and songs written in Sanskrit. If you have such information please let us know.
For an objective understanding of the Sanskrit, as a tool and as a language-carrier of commentaries of universal truth, one must study what critics have to say about it. We need "eye-openers" to get better perspective. As works of scholars, it also shades a light on the question whether there is anything called "absolute" perfection.
For additional links to articles and activities online, visit http://sanskritlinks.blogspot.com.
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